by Christopher Paslay
Although the PSSA will remain in elementary and middle schools, the Keystone Exam will replace the PSSA in high schools across the state of Pennsylvania starting in the spring of 2013.
Memo From: THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA Office of Accountability:
The Pennsylvania Department of Education provided clarification yesterday (July 12, 2012) regarding the Keystone Exams. The following memo outlines key details about the requirements for participation in these assessments and manner in which student performance on the Keystone Exams will impact determinations about Adequate Yearly Progress. In addition, we will offer some curricular strategies to assist you and your team in planning support programs to assist 11th grade students in preparing for success on the Algebra I, Literature and Biology Keystone Exams.
Assessment of 11th Grade Students
- ALL 11th graders will take the Keystone assessments in the following 3 subjects next year: Algebra 1, Literature, and Biology.
- The Algebra 1 and Literature scores will be used in the calculation of AYP for the high school.
- Biology will NOT be used in the AYP calculation. However, the 11th graders are still required to take the Biology Keystone Exam to meet the participation requirement in NCLB that all students complete a science assessment during their high school years.
Assessment of 9th and 10th Grade Students
- All students in grades 9 and 10, enrolled in the Algebra 1, Literature (generally, English 2), or Biology courses are required to take the Keystone Exam in these subjects upon completion of the course(s).
- If a student scores proficient or better in any subject, his/her score/s will be banked and count towards AYP calculations when he/she is in the 11th grade and he/she need not take the examination again in this/these subject(s).
- If a student does not score proficient, he/she has multiple opportunities to re-take the examination(s). However, his/her Algebra 1 and Literature scores will not count for AYP calculations until the student is in the 11th grade.
- If a student took the Keystones in Algebra 1 and/or Literature Exam(s) multiple times between grades 9-11, and never scored proficient or better, his/her best score will count towards the AYP calculation when he/she is in the 11th grade.
Assessment of Students Graduating in 2017 and Beyond (8th graders in 2013)
- Students MUST score proficient or better in all the three subjects (Algebra1, Literature, and Biology.) in order to graduate from high school.
- They can do so in multiple attempts.
- This is a state requirement.
- After 2 unsuccessful attempts students will have the option of completing a project.
The parameters for this project have not been finalized yet.
Below is a previous post from May 19, 2012 (this information is no longer accurate and has been updated above):
Now that students across the state are starting to master the PSSA test (last school year, 77% of all children in grades K – 12 scored proficient or above in math and 73.5% scored proficient or above in reading), the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) is doing what all political bodies do when they want to stay in control and keep one step ahead of the people: they are changing the test.
Starting in 2012 – 13, high school students will no longer be taking the PSSA. The Keystone Exams, which will consist of tests covering Algebra I, Biology, and Literature, will be given instead. Although no testing schedule has been finalized, it’s probable that the Philadelphia School District, as well as most districts in the state, will give the Algebra I exam in the spring of freshmen year and the Biology exam in the spring of sophomore year. Per the state’s “recommendation,” Philadelphia will most likely give the Literature test during sophomore year as well.
This is a significant change from the way the PSSAs were administered at the high school level in the past. Under the PSSA, math, reading, writing, and science tests were given to all students in their 11th grade year (although only math and reading counted for AYP under the federal No Child Left Behind Law). Now, because Algebra I is routinely taken in 9th grade and Biology in 10th, the Keystone Exams will likely be given during those years.
What doesn’t make a whole lot of sense, however, is giving the Literature test in 10th grade instead of 11th. Although the PDE is only “recommending” that the Literature portion be given at the end of sophomore year, it appears as though Philadelphia School District officials are going to heed this advice.
Although I’ve continued to inquire as to why the state is “recommending” giving the Literature portion in 10th, I’ve been unable to find an adequate answer; none of the administrators I’ve spoken with have been able to get an answer from the state, either. Unless the PDE is able to offer a meaningful rationale, the Philadelphia School District should seriously consider giving the exam in 11th grade.
Here are three reasons why:
1. The Literature Exam is based on skills, not content. In other words, the test isn’t limited to a specific period of literature covered, like World Literature (9th and 10th grade), American Lit (11th grade), or British Lit (12th grade). Whether or not specific stories or novels (content) are covered doesn’t matter. The assessment anchors and eligible content on the Keystone Literature Exam are skills based (analyze author’s purpose, make inferences and draw conclusions, identify figurative language, etc.), so the reasoning that applies to Algebra I and Biology doesn’t apply to Literature. The test can be given in any of the first three years of high school, so why not give it in 11th grade when the students have had another year to learn the skills needed on the test?
2. The Literature Exam is vocabulary based. Giving the exam in 11th grade will give students another year to broaden their vocabularies, and to learn and practice new words.
3. Giving the Literature Exam in 11th grade will stagger the exams. Why not have students take one exam per year from 9th to 11th, rather than taking both the Biology and Literature test in 10th grade? Staggering the tests will help teachers and schools focus more on curriculum rather than killing instruction for students by forcing 10th graders to double-up on test preparation for two subjects at once.
Perhaps the most concerning part of the Keystone Exam is the new state graduation requirement. According to the talk coming from the PDE, starting in the year 2017, all public high school students in the state will have to pass all parts of the Keystone Exam in order to graduate. This would include students with special needs, those who are truant and miss large blocks of instruction, impoverished students with limited home support, and those with other social and emotional ills. What will happen to the students who fail to pass all portions of the Keystone Exam and as a result fail to graduate? If they are retained, who is going to pay for the extra seats, materials, and resources? The city of Philadelphia, with $472 million in delinquent property taxes? Or the state, which has slashed Philadelphia’s education budget like some Samurai Warrior?
As with No Child Left Behind, which promised that all children would score proficient or better on state tests in reading and math by 2014, the 2017 Keystone Exam graduation requirement is quite ambitious. Mostly likely we will see waivers being granted to students and schools starting in 2017 (similar to what is happening now with NCLB), when a backlog of students across the state struggle to meet these . . . unrealistic? . . . standards.
Of course, it is of the utmost importance to set high expectation for all children, which is why Philadelphia School District officials should seriously consider giving the Keystone Literature Exam in the 11th grade, or at least demand a meaningful explanation from the PDE as to why they are “recommending” it be given in sophomore year.