by Christopher Paslay
America’s future career counselors are being taught that meeting deadlines and showing up on time for appointments is a matter of cultural perspective.
Last December I received my master’s degree in multicultural education from Eastern University. In my Urban Education class our professor gave a mini lesson on “time orientation,” and explained how being “on time” was culturally relative.
“In some cultures,” she said, “‘on time’ means arriving 15 minutes ahead of schedule. In some cultures it means coming fifteen minutes after the scheduled time. And still in other cultures, ‘on time’ means you arrive at exactly the time scheduled.” She was serious and not being facetious in any way.
The first thing that struck me after hearing this was the term “Black Time,” a slang and racially insensitive phrase used by people (including some African Americans) to describe a person who shows up late for something. One of my best friends in high school was African American and his father used to say to him jokingly, “Be home in time for church—and I mean on time, not Black Time.”
The idea that time orientation is culturally relative, outside of multicultural education programs, is absurd. Time, unlike many other subjective entities, is one of the few things that is objective and fixed. For those like my Urban Education professor who don’t believe so, try arriving at a train station 15 minutes after the train is scheduled to arrive and see if you catch the train. Or, come back to your car 15 minutes after the parking meter runs out and see if you get a ticket. Or, show up for a job interview 15 minutes after the scheduled meeting, and see if you get the job.
Time isn’t a matter of cultural perspective. Those who believe this are in for a lot of pain and suffering.
Yet this reality doesn’t stop progressive multicultural theorists from teaching impressionable young minds that time is culturally relative.
This summer, I’m back at Eastern taking a class in Career Counseling as a requirement for my School Counseling Certificate. The book we are using in class is called Career Counseling: A Holistic Approach, by Vernon G. Zunker, the acknowledged guru in the field. In chapter 9 of his book, titled “Career Counseling for Multicultural Groups,” he gives a blueprint for counseling African Americans, Asian and Pacific Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Whites, pigeon-holing each group with generalized stereotypes—all the while warning future counselors against the dangers of stereotyping.
Zunker goes on to say that different cultures have different “work values,” and different ideas of “appropriate behavior” and “appropriate dress.” Zunker states, “Thus, it is not surprising that one cultural group may generally view a behavior as being appropriate, but members of a different culture may view that same behavior as gross or insulting.” Interestingly, Zunker gives no examples to back up his premise; so much for teaching future counselors that they should help students and clients to speak, dress, and behave in a professional manner on a job interview or in the workplace.
Back to the notion of time orientation. Zunker states:
Among some cultures, differences in time orientation from the dominant society can present barriers to effective career planning and other time commitments that are normally assumed in career counseling. In traditional career counseling, the client is expected to be on time for appointments and abide by a set of time rules to complete certain counseling interventions. In many collectivist cultures individuals are not as obsessed with being on time and maintaining a strict time commitment. A Navajo Indian woman asked me if the next meeting would be “Indian time” or “American time.” She explained that “Indian time” is “whenever we get together that is convenient.” Being on time for most counselors is viewed as a positive value, and lateness is often misunderstood as a symptom of indifference or a lack of basic work skills. In this case, I learned firsthand that time orientation has different meanings for different cultural groups.
Zunker’s theory on time orientation stops here. There is no follow-up advice or instruction to future counselors about how to address the problem of lateness or missed deadlines by clients who have an “alternative orientation” to time. Zunker is mute on the issue, and his silence is his own approval. In other words, by not stating that these behaviors are faulty (they are, in his words, a “misunderstanding”) he is signaling to America’s future counselors that it would be racially intolerant or culturally insensitive to expect clients to conform to the dominant culture’s definition of being punctual and meeting deadlines.
So how do we explain the misfortunes that happen to clients whose time orientation is culturally relative? Why is it that people with alternative perspective on time habitually miss trains and buses, get parking tickets, are hit with late fees by the IRS and credit card companies, get their utilities shut off, and never get hired for jobs?
According to social justice advocates who embrace a multicultural theory, these people are caught in the throes of institutional racism and the cultural oppression of a dominant white society.
In short, these people are all victims, and future counselors are being indoctrinated by theorists like Zunker to expect as much.