Despite accusations of segregation, academic achievement and failure in district schools transcend neighborhoods and racial boundaries.
by Christopher Paslay
There’s a line in the movie JFK where Kevin Costner explains to the jury that theoretical physics can prove that an elephant can hang from a cliff with his tail tied to a daisy.
“But use your eyes, your common sense,” Costner tells the jurors.
This is good advice when it comes to the racial achievement gap in the Philadelphia School District. Recently, district and city officials have suggested that unequal school conditions are the reason why white students have higher math and reading skills than black and Latino students.
“Philadelphia, like many other Northeastern cities, has been slow to address and remove the policy barriers that have served to keep poor and minority students in under-resourced schools,” Lori Shorr, Mayor Nutter’s secretary of education recently stated.
It’s not my policy to look at people in terms of skin color, but since the race card has been placed squarely on the table, it’s worth investigating the matter further.
Let’s start with the racial make-up of several of the highest performing public schools in the city (as well as the state).
Despite claims of segregation, CAPA, Engineering and Science, and Girls High have student bodies that are majority black. Central is evenly balanced between black (30.7 percent), white (31.7 percent) and Asian (28.8 percent), and Masterman is also very diverse.
Let’s now look at the demographics of the so-called “white” schools in the Northeast. According to school district data, Frankford, Fells, Lincoln and Northeast all have more black students than white, or any other race for that matter. Washington is also very diverse, with more non-white students than white.
The interesting part about these “privileged” Northeast schools is that all five of them are empowerment schools—which means they are failing because they haven’t met the standards set forth in No Child Left Behind.
The same is true for the Northeast’s Austin Meehan Middle School and Fitzpatrick Elementary—they have more non-white students than white, and both are categorized as failing.
A school that is predominantly white is Kensington’s Charles Carroll High School (54.8% white), but once again there are no extra privileges or resources here, because this school is also failing by state standards.
A school that isn’t failing is Strawberry Mansion, which is 98 percent black and located in the heart of North Philadelphia. Neither is Bok in South Philadelphia (77.3 percent black); or Communications Technology in Southwest Philadelphia (98 percent black); or High School of the Future in West Philadelphia (94.7 percent black). And the list goes on and on.
So where’s the unequal opportunity?
When you analyze the actual numbers, it becomes clear that Philadelphia’s racial achievement gap is more about politics than it is about a “dark stain” of inequality. There is no legitimate racial discrimination taking place—the district’s 85 empowerment schools, as well as the ones making Adequate Yearly Progress—are evenly distributed across racial lines and neighborhood boundaries.
But even if there were some kind of discrimination evident, it would clearly have to be of the black-on-black variety.
Mayor Michael Nutter is black (as was John Street before him); Superintendent Arlene Ackerman is black; School Reform Commission chair Robert L. Archie Jr. is black; 61 percent of Philadelphia public school students (and their parents) are black.
This, of course, is opposed to the 13 percent of the district students who are white.
White students may score higher on standardized math and reading tests than their black and Latino counterparts, but educational opportunities in schools are only the tip of the iceberg.
In a newly released report titled Parsing the Achievement Gap II, the Educational Testing Service tracked national trends between students of different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. The report listed 16 factors that have been linked to student achievement.
Of the 16 factors, nine were directly related to a child’s home environment. Minority children struggle in schools for reasons such as lack of parental involvement, low birth weight, hunger and poor nutrition, exposure to lead and mercury, excessive television watching, and the fact that they are not read to enough as babies, among other things.
If we want all children to succeed in school, it’s time to take a holistic approach to education. We not only need more resources in struggling schools, but we need true buy-in from parents and the community.
We all must take responsibility for educating our city’s children, and resist the familiar temptation to blame our shortcomings on racism.