by Christopher Paslay
Progressive career counseling theories may be contributing to high unemployment rates among Americans aged 16 to 24.
Unemployment rates for our nation’s youth are at an all-time high. So is student-loan debt among recent college graduates. Town Hall columnist Victor Davis Hanson summed-up the situation in his article “The New American Helots”:
Ancient Sparta turned its conquered neighbors into indentured serfs—half free, half slave. The resulting Helot underclass produced the food of the Spartan state, freeing Sparta’s elite males to train for war and the duties of citizenship.
Over the last few decades, we’ve created our modern version of these Helots–millions of indebted young Americans with little prospect of finding permanent well-paying work, servicing their enormous college debts or reaping commensurate financial returns on their costly educations.
Student-loan debts now average about $25,000 per graduating senior. But the percentage of youths 16 to 24 who are working (about 49 percent) is the lowest since records have been kept. The cost of a four-year college education can range between $100,000 and $200,000 depending on whether the institution is public or private. Only 53 percent of today’s college students graduate within six years. Student time spent writing and reading in college has plummeted.
Simply stated, Americans are spending more money on higher education and getting a smaller return on their investment. Too many young adults graduate with impractical degrees like those earning a bachelor’s in Women’s Studies from the University of Massachusetts Amherst or those getting a master’s in Ethnic and Multicultural Studies from Minnesota State University (any college major that has the word “studies” in it is an indicator of its worthlessness—for example, majoring in “Math Studies” instead of simply majoring in Math).
There are those folks, however, who believe practicality has nothing to do with education, that knowledge is its own reward. Although there is some validity to this argument, young men and women should graduate college with at least some marketable skill or training that puts them in a position to find meaningful employment.
Unfortunately, over the past decade, too often this has not been the case. College grads are not finding jobs, and have amassed over one trillion dollars in student loan debt. The Great Recession is partly to blame, but is not the sole culprit. Underneath the rocky economy is a bigger, more worrisome problem perpetuating youth unemployment and obscene student loan debt: disgustingly progressive career counseling theory.
Here’s a brief history of career counseling in America:
In 1909, a guy named Frank Parsons, the father of career counseling, formulated the conceptual framework for helping a person choose a career. His approach, known as Trait-and-Factor Theory, was straightforward and had three steps. First, a person seeking a career took a test to indentify his skills, abilities, and interests. Second, the person was given a list of career opportunities that matched his skills and interests. Third, the counselor helped the person find the best fit between the two. Trait-oriented theories, for the first half of the 20th century, worked well. People found careers, paid taxes, and contributed to society.
In the 1960s, career counseling theories began to expand into a new direction; finding a career was no longer simply about working to pay the bills, but to express yourself. A guy named Donald Super pioneered “Developmental” career theories, which taught that career aspirations, like a person, develop over time. Self-concept was the central principle of Super’s new career theory. According to Vernon G. Zunker, a noted scholar on career counseling, “The major practical application here is that individuals implement their self-concepts into careers as a means of self-expression.”
In the late 1970s and early 80s, “Social Learning” and “Cognitive Theories” came to the forefront. It was around this time that John Krumboltz proposed his Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC). This theory developed the idea that making career decisions is a learned skill—that simply matching a person’s interests and abilities with available jobs is archaic and limited—and that each individual’s unique learning experiences over the lifespan are what lead to proper career choice.
Finally came the 1990’s and the height of cultural diversity and political correctness (and the birth of identity politics in career counseling). The new career counseling perspective was that the values of the dominant white culture were broken and oppressive. According to Zunker, “The point to consider in this context is that individuals from different cultures develop their own set of values and work needs that were shaped in their unique environment. Values that differ from those of the dominant white culture are to be recognized and appreciated.” Apparently, universal human values—such as respect, work ethic, honestly, personal responsibility, etc.—do not cross cultural boundaries.
Zunker goes on to say that “Career choice, for example, may be driven by goals of family as opposed to individual aspirations. In the individualistic cultures of Europe and North America, great value is placed on individual accomplishment. In the collectivist cultures of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the individual focuses on the welfare of the group and its collective survival” (his choice of the word “welfare” is curious, no pun intended). Zunker does a nice job of stereotyping every race and culture while warning future counselors not to stereotype. He also says that white counselors “are to increase their awareness of their own culture in order to change their racist behaviors.”
So where has 100 years of progressive career counseling theory gotten us? Besides $1 trillion in student loan debt and a 51 percent unemployment rate among youths aged 16 to 24, not very far. Today’s career counselors might want to consider going back to the basics of Frank Parson’s good old Trait-and-Factor Theory. Work isn’t always about self-concept and self expression, but about the dignity of having a job and making a meaningful contribution to society.