by Christopher Paslay
“Poverty” has more to do with culture and values than it does money.
New Jersey Governor Chris Christie says not taking over Camden public schools would be “immoral.” Christie’s plan is to hire a new superintendent and do what he can to fill teacher vacancies. According to the Philadelphia Inquirer:
Once the takeover begins, the state “will ensure that every child has the books, instructional materials, and technology necessary for a high-quality education, many of which are currently not reaching the classroom,” according to a statement from the governor’s office.
Books, instructional materials, and technology.
And we can’t forget money. School reform advocates will also insist poor urban districts across America need more funding. Noted education scholar Diane Ravitch recently published the post “Do Americans Believe in Equality of Opportunity?” on her blog:
Governor Jerry Brown of California gave a brilliant state of the state speech in January, where he pledged to change funding of public schools so that more money went to children with the greatest needs. . . .
But a Los Angeles Times poll finds that only half of the public support the idea of spending more for those with the highest needs.
This raises the question: Do we really believe in equality of educational opportunity? Or do we feel that it is okay that schools for children from affluent families have more resources than those for children of the poor?
Interestingly, Camden public schools spend over $20,000 per student, yet have some of the lowest SAT scores in New Jersey and a graduation rate of only 49 percent. According to an article in the Notebook:
Camden, the poorest city of its size in America and the most violent — with nearly 70 homicides last year in a population of less than 80,000 people — has a graduation rate below 50 percent. At the same time, due to landmark New Jersey court decisions on school funding, the city spends more than $20,000 per student, close to the amount spent in some of the area’s wealthy suburbs.
According to an article in the Delaware County Daily Times, per-pupil spending and achievement are not correlated:
If spending were an important factor in education we’d expect Lower Merion’s $26,000 per-student spending to rocket their academic performance far above neighboring Radnor’s at $19,000 per student. Yet Radnor is ranked No. 4 by the Business Journal and Lower Merion is ranked No. 7.
But for a stark comparison we should look to Central Bucks where they spend $13,000 per student — less than half of that spent by Lower Merion. And their ranking? Just behind Lower Merion at No. 8!
What folks like Ravitch rarely address, however, is that “equality of opportunity” has more to do with values and culture than it does with money. What does “poor” mean, exactly? My father grew up in a 900 square foot row-home in Southwest Philadelphia with nine siblings, and the only source of income was my grandfather’s salary as a Philadelphia firefighter. Was my father poor? Financially, maybe, but not in terms of his values and character. He learned responsibility, respect, work ethic, honesty, integrity, and the importance of family nonetheless. He went on to become a well-respected teacher and administrator, and eventually earned his Ed.D.
In a 2009 Educational Testing Service policy report titled Parsing the Achievement Gap II, national trends between students of different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds were tracked. The report listed 16 factors that have been linked to student achievement. Of the 16 factors, nine were directly related to a child’s home environment.
Camden is over 85 percent minority. If its public schools are going to make any real progress, the next superintendent should have a plan in place to address the following 10 questions (these questions apply to any major urban school district in America):
1. How are you going to get Camden parents involved with school? According to ETS, Black students’ parents are less likely than White parents to attend a school event or to volunteer at school. Children whose parents are involved in their schooling have higher levels of achievement.
2. How are you going to get Camden men to father their children? Minority students were less likely to live with two parents, and 77 percent of Black children in America are born out-of-wedlock. Children who live with two married parents do better both behaviorally and academically.
3. How are you going to keep Camden families from frequently moving and changing schools? Minority students are more likely than White students to change schools frequently. There is a high correlation between frequently changing schools and poor test scores.
4. How are you going to increase the low birth weight of Camden newborns? The percentage of Black infants born with low birth weight is higher than that for White and Hispanic infants. Studies show children with low birth weight do worse in school.
5. How are you going to keep Camden children from getting lead and mercury poisoning? Minority and low-income children were more likely to be exposed to environmental hazards, which harms brain development.
6. How are you going to get Camden children to eat healthy? Minority and low-income children were more likely to be food insecure, which can lead to concentration problems and issues with development.
7. How are you going to encourage Camden parents to get their children to school? Black and Hispanic students have the highest rates of absenteeism. There is a high correlation between truancy and low academic achievement.
8. How are you going to get Camden parents to read to their children? Minority and low-income children were less likely to be read to daily as infants, which studies show impacts a child’s vocabulary development and intelligence.
9. How are you going to get Camden parents to turn off the television? Minority and lower-SES children watch more television. Excessive television watching is associated with low academic achievement.
10. How are you going to keep Camden children from regressing academically over the summer? Minority and low-SES students grow less academically over the summer, and in many cases, lose knowledge.
Until these awkward but important issues are adequately addressed, Christie’s takeover of Camden public schools—along with a new superintendent—isn’t going to make a significant amount of difference.